Xinhua comment filial piety old, don’t forget to old people spiritual nourishment – Fujian Channel – kairui

13 Nov

Xinhua comment: filial piety old, don’t forget to old people "spiritual nourishment" – Fujian Channel – people.com.cn Xinhua comment: original title: filial piety old, don’t forget to old people "spiritual nourishment" often pine today (the 9th day of the ninth month of the Chinese lunar calendar) is China’s traditional festival, the Double Ninth Festival tomorrow (the Gregorian calendar in October 10th) World Mental Health Day once a year. "Law" to protect the rights and interests of the people’s Republic of China stipulates that "the elderly ninth lunar month every year for the old festival", also emphasizes that family members should be concerned about the spiritual needs of the elderly, should not be ignored, neglected elderly. Family members who live apart from the elderly should always visit or greet the elderly". Since the launch of World Health Day in 1992, the World Psychiatric Association has launched two themes: "mental health and aging" (1999), and "mental health with aging, happiness and happiness in old age" (2012). Caring for the mental health of the elderly has increasingly become an important consensus in China and even in the world. The present situation of mental health of the old people "old to fear empty" has existed since ancient times. However, due to the rapid urbanization process, the proportion of "empty nest elderly" and "elderly living alone" are increasing. The report of Chinese family development (2015) shows that empty nest elderly account for half of the total number of elderly people. Among them, the elderly living alone account for nearly 10% of the total number of elderly people, and only 41.9% of the elderly live alone with their spouses. Studies have shown that the family "empty nest" or "hollow" causes the elderly psychological disorders, anxiety and depression and other mental disorders are quite prominent. According to WHO estimates in recent years, elderly people with depression accounts for about 7%. 10% of the elderly population. The incidence of depression in elderly people with somatic diseases is as high as 50%. Even a life of depression, suicide ideation and behavior Dutch act. It has been shown that with China’s emphasis on mental health of residents, the population of our country Dutch act rate is gradually decline, but the elderly Dutch act rate does not fall, at least annually in recent five years were 100 thousand and 55 years of age or older Dutch act death, of which 95% of the elderly have different degrees of mental disorders. Thus, the status quo of mental health of the elderly is not optimistic, and the mission of improving the mental health of the elderly is still a long way to go. The deterioration of mental health in the elderly is the result of the comprehensive influence of physiological, psychological, environmental, social and cultural factors on the deterioration of mental health of the elderly. First of all, with the increase of age, the physiological function of the elderly will generally deteriorate rapidly. A large number of studies have shown that physiological health has a significant impact on mental health. The increase of age and the increase of the disease will lead to the decline of the function of the organs in the elderly, and then bring about the problems of cognition, personality, emotion and psychological ability. Secondly, major life events have a profound impact on the psychology of the elderly, such as retirement, bereavement, empty nest, serious illness and so on. Taking retirement as an example, it makes the social function of most of the elderly change rapidly, many elderly people are excluded from the edge of the economic market, the formal social participation of the elderly gradually decreases, and the negative sense of self-worth gradually strengthens, gradually

新华网评:孝老,别忘了对老年人的“精神滋养”–福建频道–人民网 原标题:新华网评:孝老,别忘了对老年人的“精神滋养”   常青松   今天(农历九月初九)是我国的传统佳节“重阳节”,明天(公历10月10日)为一年一度的世界精神卫生日。《中华人民共和国老年人权益保障法》规定“每年农历九月初九为老年节”,同时还重点强调“家庭成员应当关心老年人的精神需求,不得忽视、冷落老年人。与老年人分开居住的家庭成员,应当经常看望或者问候老年人”。从1992年世界卫生日发起以来,世界精神病学协会就针对老年精神健康发起了“精神卫生与衰老”(1999)以及“精神健康伴老龄,安乐幸福享晚年”(2012)两个主题宣传。关爱老年人心理健康已日益成为我国乃至世界的重要共识。   老年人精神健康的现状   “老来怕空”自古有之。然而由于我国快速的人口城市化进程,“空巢老人”以及“独居老人”的比例日益提升。《中国家庭发展报告(2015年)》显示,空巢老人占老年人总数的一半,其中,独居老人占老年人总数的近10%,仅与配偶居住的老年人占41.9%。已有研究表明,家庭“空巢”或者“空心”致使老年人产生的心理失调、焦虑抑郁等精神障碍相当突出。根据世界卫生组织近年来的估算,抑郁症老人约占老年人口的7%�10%,患有躯体疾病的老年人抑郁症的发生率高达50%。抑郁严重时甚至会有生不如死、自杀轻生的意念和行为。已有研究显示,随着我国对居民心理健康的重视,我国人口的自杀率正在逐渐回落,唯独老年人群的自杀率不降反升,近五年来每年至少有10万55岁以上老年人自杀死亡,其中95%的老年人有不同程度心理障碍。由此可见,老年人心理健康的现状不容乐观,完善老年人群精神健康的使命依然任重道远。   老年人精神健康退化的致因   老年人精神健康的退化是一个由生理、心理、环境、社会及文化等因素综合影响的结果。首先,随着年岁的增加,老年人的生理功能一般都会快速退化。大量研究表明,生理健康对心理健康具有显著的影响。年龄的增长和疾病的增多都会导致老年人各脏器功能下降,进而带来认知、性格、情绪及心理能力上的问题。   其次,重大的生命事件会对老年人的心理产生深刻的影响,例如退休、丧亲、空巢、重病等。以退休为例,它使大部分老年人的社会功能迅速转变,许多老年人被排斥在经济市场边缘,老年人正式的社会参与逐渐减少,自我价值的否定感却逐渐加强,逐渐形成“退休综合征”,久而久之就会产生严重的心理问题。   再次,家庭的因素十分关键。家庭作为人类社会的最基本细胞,长期以来承担了养老的基本功能。然而,随着经济社会的发展进步,生育率和死亡率大幅度下降,人口老龄化加剧,家庭结构发生了急剧变化,势必对传统家庭养老方式产生巨大冲击。家庭的小型化冲击了传统的以家为中心的养老文化,淡化了家的精神寄托功能,老年人因家庭“空巢”而引发的如孤独、抑郁、焦虑、烦躁等心理不适现象,在城市已经成为比较突出的老年心理问题。   最后,文化及社会因素会从宏观上形塑社会规范,无形之中制约人们的心理及行为表现。随着自由独立等现代价值观念的发展,传统的孝养文化正在日益受到冲击。有学者直言“这是一个孝道寂寞的时代”。在少子老龄化的中国,“代际倾斜”致使大多数老年人一直忙碌到晚年仍然承担着照料孙辈等重任,而传统文化中子女及家庭对于老年人的“反哺文化”逐渐淡化,国家和社会对老年人尤其是对农村老年人的健康投入仍然有不小的差距。   老年人精神健康退化的演进路径   老年人的精神需求包括三个方面的特征:首先是普遍性,即人人都有精神需求,在特殊的年龄阶段,精神需求的重要性甚至大于其他方面的需求;其次是特殊性,不同的老年人的心理需求偏向不同;最后是层次性,需求也是由低到高逐步产生的。具体而言,老年人的精神需求至少包括老有所乐、老有所美、老有所亲、老有所爱、老有所为、老有所成、老有善终等。   当老年人的精神需求遭受重创或者基本需求得不到满足时,心理弹性较为脆弱的老年心理就会雪上加霜,甚至产生不可逆的严重后果。老年人的精神健康恶化的演进路径一般始发于生理功能下降,或者是养老条件恶化,或者是重大生命事件的负面影响,随后表现为疼痛、食欲不振、失眠、心慌、易疲劳、低落等身心问题,进而产生“隐匿性抑郁症”等症状。然而需要强调的是,以上症状是可逆转可调控的,这个阶段是家庭成员干预及实施调控的最佳时机。但是,许多子女及老年人本身往往忽视了隐匿性的心理问题,致使病情逐渐恶化,造成严重抑郁或者痴呆等疾病,有的甚至遂发自杀意念,进而是自杀尝试及行为。到了这个阶段,老年人的心理恶化就很难得到逆转,会给老年人本身、家庭乃至全社会带来较大的悲剧。因此,把握老年人心理退化的演进路径对于及早、准确地干预老年人的心理健康就显得十分重要。   共同构建老年人精神健康   首先,对于个人而言,应做到“有备而老”。老年人应提前对退休生活进行规划,不仅要在心理上做好准备,还要在生活中制定计划。培养生活情趣或者继续积极发挥余热,参与家庭及社会的活动都是不错的选择。当感觉自己心理不适的时候,不要大事化小或者轻而视之。抑郁症等病症具有一定的生物学基础,通常都包括生理功能的改变及脑内神经递质的异常等,一定要及时寻求专业的医治。   其次,对于家庭而言,应做到“亲情滋养”。亲情慰藉对于优化老年人的心理健康和生活质量具有不可替代的作用。尤其是子女应该多看望关怀父母,多陪父母聊天,支持父母在生活中的自主权利,帮助父母培养生活爱好和喜欢的生活方式。对于患有精神问题的父母,儿女应该加强观察,注意患病老人情绪变化以及防止其发生自杀、自伤的行为,帮他们树立生活的信心。   最后,对于社会而言,应做到“文化养老”。一方面,要大力弘扬与时俱进的孝养文化;另一方面,要对于优化老年人群心理健康提供资源支持和制度安排。国家应该加快及完善老年精神健康服务体系的建设,提高精神健康医疗服务及报销的力度,培养老年人精神健康和照料服务的专才等。尤其要强调的是重视社区对于优化老年人精神健康的抓手作用。社区可以通过组织活动提高老年人的社区参与,加强老年人的社会整合及情感归属;同时,社区为老年人提供心理健康筛查及诊治也最为方便和直接。(作者为香港大学社会工作与社会行政学系博士研究生) (责编:姚璐莹、张子剑)相关的主题文章: