货币性黄金被出口至国外 哈尔滨剑桥学院怎么样

12 Nov

Oil prices plunged to financial ruin the Venezuelan government soon realized gold debt Huitong news network February 24th – the Venezuelan government and Deutsche Bank recently reached gold swaps shows that the country is preparing to cash remaining gold held by it, in order to repay the debt coming due. This highlights Venezuela’s huge debt pressure under low oil prices. According to BullionStar, Switzerland imported 35.8 tons of gold from Venezuela in January this year. These gold reserves were sent back from Europe by Hugo Chavez, the former president of Venezuela, Chavez. Sadly, just a few years later, where did these gold come from and where did they go back?. And the only seller of so much gold is probably the Central Bank of venezuela. The central bank has been trading gold swaps with major commercial banks in Europe and the United States, or selling gold in the open market. Notably, Venezuela in November 25, 2011 to January 30, 2012 will be 160 tons of gold reserves adjusted after returning to the country in 2015 will also start the gold exports to Switzerland, the world’s largest gold trading and refining center. How many unsecured official gold reserves are unknown in Venezuela?. The reason is that Venezuela’s economy is in dire straits. Almost all of the country’s export earnings come from oil, while oil prices have plummeted by nearly 70% since 2014. Venezuela’s foreign exchange reserves also declined rapidly, from $24 billion 200 million in February 2015 to $14 billion 800 million in November 2015. According to the Reuters, Venezuela’s inflation rate is three digit growth, while its CDS (credit default swap) shows that the possibility of default in the year is 78%. To avoid the disaster, the Venezuelan central bank has a strong incentive to use its official gold reserves. The US Geological Survey data show that Venezuela’s annual output of gold is about 12 tons. In Venezuela there is not so much gold output, and the Chinese people would not be so generous, so the above mentioned export to Switzerland’s 35.8 tons of gold reserves in the kargath certain from the Central Bank of venezuela. Between Venezuela and Switzerland’s history of cross-border trade shows, 2012 Venezuela exports to Switzerland 4 tons of gold, for the year 2013 10 tons, while in 2014 and 2015 were 12 tons and tons of 24. 2012, 2013 and 2014 Venezuela gold shipped from mining production in the country is possible, but 2015 and 2016 exports of gold from the Central Bank of venezuela. According to the Swiss customs departments to provide the data, we can use the monthly average price of gold and then report the weight of gold and value to estimate the purity of gold trading. Until May 2013, Venezuela exported to Switzerland the purity of gold is about 80%, the gold is likely to come from the mine at the nugget (doré bars), or from the Central Bank of Venezuela’s currency as the bric. But since December 2013, since the appointment of the theory

油价暴跌财政破产在即 委内瑞拉政府变现黄金偿债   汇通网2月24日讯——委内瑞拉政府最近与德意志银行达成黄金掉期交易的结果显示,该国正在准备将其所持有的剩余黄金变现,以便偿还即将到期的债务。这凸显了委内瑞拉在低油价压力下巨大的还债压力。   根据BullionStar报导,瑞士今年1月从委内瑞拉净进口黄金35.8吨。这些黄金储备是委内瑞拉已故前总统查韦斯(Hugo Chavez)辛辛苦苦从欧洲调回的。悲哀的是,仅仅过了几年,这些黄金从哪里来又要回到哪里去。   而如此多数量黄金的唯一卖主,便只可能是委内瑞拉央行。该国央行已经在与欧美各大商业银行进行黄金掉期交易,或者是在公开市场抛售黄金。引人注目的是,委内瑞拉在2011年11月25日至2012年1月30日将160吨官方黄金储备调回国后,该国2015年又开始将这些黄金出口至瑞士——世界最大的黄金交易及精炼中心。委内瑞拉还有多少未抵押的官方黄金储备尚未可知。   其原因在于,委内瑞拉的经济已陷入绝境。该国出口收入几乎全部来自石油,而石油价格自2014年已经暴跌近70%。委内瑞拉的外汇储备也快速下降,自2015年2月的242亿美元猛降至2015年11月的148亿美元。根据路透社报道,委内瑞拉的通胀率呈三位数增长,而其CDS(信用违约掉期)显示其年内违约的可能性为78%。为了避免灾难的发生,委内瑞拉央行动有很强的动机要动用其官方黄金储备。   美国地质调查局数据显示,委内瑞拉黄金年产量约为12吨。鉴于委内瑞拉没有如此大的黄金产出,且该国民众不会如此“大手笔”,所以上述提及的出口至瑞士的35.8吨的黄金储备一定出自位于加卡加斯的委内瑞拉央行。委内瑞拉与瑞士之间的历史跨境贸易显示,2012年委内瑞拉出口至瑞士的黄金为4吨,2013年为10吨,而在2014年与2015年分别是12吨及24吨。2012、2013和2014年委内瑞拉的黄金发货来自该国矿山产量是可能的,但2015和2016年出口的黄金一定来自委内瑞拉央行。   根据来自瑞士海关部门提供的数据,我们可以通过使用月度黄金均价及随后将报告中披露的黄金的重量及价值估算出所交易黄金的纯度。直到2013年5月,委内瑞拉出口至瑞士的黄金纯度约为80%,这些黄金可能是来自矿山的多雷金块(doré bars),或者来自委内瑞拉央行的币铸金砖。但自2013年12月起,自委内瑞拉发货的黄金纯度约为99.5%,暗示这些黄金主要来自委内瑞拉央行。   通常,黄金掉期交易是黄金持有者转让金条换取货币,互换协议期满则按约定的远期价格将抵押的黄金买回来。掉期交易中的黄金并不一定要搬运实物。   要查出委内瑞拉央行具体出口了多少用于掉期交易的黄金,或者其潜在的黄金销售量是不可能的。官方黄金储备是货币性黄金,可以不必在对外贸易统计中披露。无论委内瑞拉央行什么时候选择将其黄金运至国外——无论是掉期黄金还是销售黄金——关于外贸统计都有两个选择项。第一,货币性黄金被出口至国外。第二,货币性黄金在委内瑞拉去货币化后出口至国外。只有在第二种情况下黄金才会出现在外贸统计中。   所有渠道及证据都显示,去货币化的黄金出口至瑞士。但也有迹象显示货币性黄金被出口至国外。主要黄金交易中心英国、瑞士及香港的外贸数据都没有显示来自委内瑞拉的黄金进口。然而委内瑞拉在2015年3月、4月或者7月的黄金储备都有所下降,这意味着委内瑞拉可能悄无声息地将黄金作为货币性黄金出口至国外。更不用说,如果委内瑞拉央行将黄金储备直接卖给比如中国央行,那么相关的出口记录将永远不会出现在外贸统计中。   至于委内瑞拉央行将多少黄金用于掉期交易,多少黄金还在加拉加斯的金库中尚不可知。但是,有一点是确定的,那就是:委内瑞拉的官方黄金储备并不像世界黄金协会所描述的那么多。世界黄金协会数据显示,截至2015年4季度,委内瑞拉央行依然持有黄金361吨。而2015年11月,委内瑞拉央行在其网站上公布该国资产负债表上的金额为69,147,656,000玻利瓦尔,按照0.16的官方汇率为110亿美元,而按照9个月滚动平均金价每盎司1,152.68美元计算,黄金储备为296吨。而如果委内瑞拉进行黄金掉期交易的话,这296吨黄金并不会全部进行抵押,而且这些黄金依然出现在其资产负债表中。 进入【新浪财经股吧】讨论相关的主题文章: